There are various types of fertility treatments which are available namely – Ovulation Induction, Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), In vitro Fertilisation (IVF), Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) / Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection (IMSI), Pre-implantation Genetic Screening (PGS), Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD), Donation and Surrogacy.
Men may be unable to produce sperm due to various reasons. Treatment using donor sperm for certain couples can take different forms. These include Intra-uterine Insemination (IUI-D) or In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF-D). These methods are the same as IUI and IVF treatments with partner sperm, except that donor sperm is used.
Some women are unable to have children because they are unable to produce eggs. This can occur for numerous reasons, including poorly developed ovaries, premature menopause, previous surgery or chemotherapy. For these women, IVF using donated eggs offers their only chance of becoming pregnant. In egg donation, the donated eggs are fertilised by the recipient’s partner’s sperm (where appropriate), or the donor’s sperm. The embryo is then implanted into the woman’s uterus.
Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a type of IVF treatment where sperm is injected directly into the egg. This technique is used when the sperm is not optimal, whether this is due to low count, motility or morphology. At times, it may be used due to bacteria or raised antibody levels in the semen sample. This is the most commonly performed male infertility treatment.
Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection (IMSI) is a new technique used to assist sperm selection for fertilisation. This technique uses high power magnification to visualise inside the sperm, allowing specialists to pick the sperm with the highest chance of achieving successful fertilisation. This technique is particularly important in cases of repeated IVF failures, in those with a history of miscarriages or in those with high sperm DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation occurs when there is an alteration or a break in one of the DNA strands inside the sperm itself and can affect the possibility of a successful pregnancy.
Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) is a type of fertility treatment where a semen sample is purified in the laboratory and then deposited into the womb using a thin, soft catheter. The IUI process may either be performed in a natural cycle without the use of fertility medication or following ovarian stimulation using oral tablets (commonly known as ovulation pills, conceive pills or fertility pills for women) containing Clomifene or hormonal injections containing Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). This is a non-invasive form of fertility treatment however, the success rate ranges between 10-15%.
Stimulated | Mild Stimulation | Natural Cycle IVF
During In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF), an egg is removed from the woman’s ovaries and fertilised with sperm in a laboratory. The fertilised egg, called an embryo, is then returned to the woman’s womb to grow and develop.
Fertility drugs (Stimulated IVF treatment) may be given to the female partner to stimulate the production of multiple eggs which are contained in follicles on the ovaries. Progress is monitored using ultrasound and blood tests. The eggs are then collected whilst the patient is sedated, via ultrasound-guided vaginal aspiration. The eggs are mixed with the sperm in a petri dish and closely monitored for signs of fertilisation. The embryologists analyse the embryos for quality and select the most suitable embryo for transfer. The embryo is loaded into a fine catheter. This is placed into the womb and the embryo is released. Two weeks after the embryo transfer, a pregnancy test is performed to confirm implantation was successful.
Mild ovarian stimulation for IVF treatment aims to achieve a cost-effective, patient-friendly option that optimises the balance between outcomes and risks of treatment. This option is most suitable for those with very active ovaries also known as polycystic ovaries. The risk of overresponse (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome) in this group is very high and hence, a mild stimulation approach is most appropriate.
Natural Cycle IVF is a type of IVF treatment where no stimulating medication is used. The first IVF baby in the world; Louise Brown – was born using this method of treatment. It is usually used for women where medication is either unlikely to help in Bev gcbfrecruiting a higher number of eggs due to a low ovarian reserve, or in those with a previous suboptimal response to ovarian stimulation or in those with a very high risk of ovarian over-stimulation. However, there tends to be a high cancellation rate (approximately 30%) due to either high hormonal levels at the start of a cycle, arrest in follicular growth or premature ovulation.
Whilst you are having ovarian stimulation we recommend that you do not have Chinese herbs for infertility treatment or Chinese medicine for infertility treatment simultaneously. Similarly, maca for fertility enhancement should not be used. The use of Ayurvedic treatment for infertility and Ayurvedic medicine for infertility is also strongly discouraged.
Women who do not ovulate, usually present with irregular or completely absent periods. This condition is called anovulatory infertility. The most common cause for this is Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome have a fertility problem as they may have infrequent ovulation or no ovulation.
Ovulation induction is performed using oral tablets containing Clomifene Citrate (Clomid is a popular brand) or hormonal injections containing Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). Gonal F, Menopur, Merional and Puregon are popular brands of Inj FSH. During your treatment, you will require regular scans to monitor the response of your ovaries. In addition to the scans you may be asked to check your LH hormone level (the hormone that causes ovulation to occur) by using home fertility kits. You may either aim for spontaneous conception through intercourse or have Intrauterine Insemination treatment (IUI). Ovulation induction may lead to the development of more than one follicle resulting in multiple pregnancy.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a method of detecting chromosomal and genetic abnormalities in embryos before they are implanted into the uterus. It is used for patients at risk of transmitting specific chromosomal and genetic abnormalities to their children.
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS) is a type of IVF treatment where assessment of the chromosomes within the embryos is performed prior to them being transferred. This allows accurate embryo selection and is hence, most likely to result in a healthy, successful pregnancy. This form of treatment is most suited for those who have had recurrent miscarriages or implantation problems.
A surrogacy arrangement or surrogacy agreement is the carrying of a pregnancy for intended parents. There are two main types of surrogacy
Gestational surrogacy (also known as host or full surrogacy)
In gestational surrogacy, the pregnancy results from the transfer of an embryo created by in vitro fertilization (IVF), in a manner so the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. Gestational surrogates are also referred to as gestational carriers.
Traditional surrogacy (also known as partial, genetic, or straight surrogacy)
In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate is impregnated naturally or artificially, but the resulting child is genetically related to the surrogate.
Intended parents may seek a surrogacy arrangement when either pregnancy is medically impossible, pregnancy risks present an unacceptable danger to the mother’s health or is a same sex couple’s preferred method of procreation. Monetary compensation may or may not be involved in these arrangements. If the surrogate receives money for the surrogacy the arrangement is considered commercial surrogacy, if she receives no compensation beyond reimbursement of medical and other reasonable expenses, it is referred to as altruistic.